Method of medical assistance to procreation (GPA), surrogacy or GPA is that a woman called surrogate mother agrees to assume a pregnancy and carry a child for a couple. It is most often done in case of infertility. It is prohibited in France.
GPA, what is it?
- Surrogacy, also called maternity for others is most often done when a woman in a couple is not able to carry a child, due to the absence or malformations of the uterus. It can also be practiced in a context of homosexuality for a couple of 2 men.
- Specifically, a woman carries a child for a couple who provides the embryo or embryos. This surrogate mother does not give her own oocytes. These are those of the couple's wife or those of a third person, the donor.
- After in vitro fertilization, the surrogate assures the progress of the pregnancy until the birth of the child that she will give to her parents of intention.
- The latter are both the biological parents of the child when the man has given his sperm and the woman his oocytes.
- When in addition to surrogacy, the couple has resorted to an oocyte or sperm donation, the mother (or father) intent of intent, if not the genetic parent is qualified of social parent.
A prohibited practice in France
- In some countries like India, Ukraine, the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, surrogacy is legal and considered a technique of medical assistance to procreation. If they have not legalized it, other countries like Spain and Belgium tolerate it.
- In France the Bioethics Law did not authorize the GPA. This practice raises ethical questions including the risk of commodification of the human body, the attack on the dignity of women and the denial of the link that is established between the gestator and the child.
- Nevertheless, every year, several French couples, heterosexual and homosexual, resort to it. and cross the border to destinations that allow ABM.
- This practice is nevertheless marginal because it is very expensive. Between the payment of the specialized agency, the inseminations, the compensation of the surrogate mother and sometimes of the donor, one must count around 150 000 dollars for a GPA in the United States.
- Moreover, as it is illegal, it poses a legal problem. Some of the children born by GPA are not recognized as the children of their intended parents or as French citizens.